Mardan.The Land of Hospitality is a city and headquarters of Mardan District in the Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Province of Pakistan. It is located at 34°12'0N 72°1'60E with an altitude of 283 meters (931 feet) lying the south-west of the district. It was part of the ancient Gandhara Civilization. Most of its land is agricultural. It has one of the world's best irrigation systems, which was laid down by the British government during British Rule of the subcontinent (1857-1947). There are still remains of the Gandhara Civilization, scattered in different areas of Mardan. The area constituting Mardan district is a part of the Peshawar valley, which first appears in history as part of the Gandhara kingdom. The armies of Alexander The Great reached the Indus Valley by two separate routes, one through the Khyber Pass and the other personally led by Alexander through Kunar, Bajaur, Swat, and Buner in 326 BC. After Alexander's departure, the valley came under the rule of Chandragupta, who ruled the valley from 321 to 297 BC. During the reign of the Buddhist emperor Asoka, the grandson of Chandragupta, Buddhism was the religion of the Peshawar Valley. The valley saw the revival of Brahmanism after the Greeks took over in the time of King Mehanda. The Scythians followed and retained control of the valley till the 7th century AD. The dominant tribe is the Yousufzais (Sons of Joseph). A small number of Sayyads, Ghourghusht, Kakar, Daavi, Khattak, Utmankhel, Dalazak, Tanoli, Panjabi and Hindokowans are also present in the district. Mardan is inhabited largely by two sub-tribes of Yousafzai, Kamalzai and Amazai. Kamalzais are divided into two main branches, Masharanzai, with chief town Toru and Kashranzai, with chief town Mardan. Amazais are divided into two main branches, the Doulatzai and Ismialzai. Educational Institutions....... * Abdul Wali Khan University * Agriculture University Mardan Campus * Aziz Bhatti Shaheed Army College * Bacha Khan Medical College * Frontier Public School & College (I studied there) * Sudhum Children Academy (Rustam) * Engeneeiring university (Mardan Campus) * F.G. Public High School Mardan cantt. * F.G. Inter College * F.G. Girls High School * Government Centennial Model School * Government Post Graduate College Mardan * Government Post Graduate College for Women * Pak American School * Pak London Kids School * The Fazle Haq College * The Mardan Model School and College * The City School * The Beaconhouse School system * Ansi Degree College Mardan Customs&Traditions.... Religion has a great impact on the culture of people. Most of the people are Muslims. However, there are Hindus, Buddhists and Parsis. The Sayyeds, Mians and Sahibzadas enjoy special respect amongst the Pshtoons on account of their ancestry. The visit to shrines or ziarats is very common especially among the women. The Yousafzai Pashtoons are lively, brave and hospitable people. They are very courteous towards each other. A slight insult is greatly resented and can result in violence. It is considered permissible to take revenge even from the son or grandson for the wrongs of the father or grandfather. This pattern of life has resulted in extreme insecurity and utter disregard for human life. There are many forms of greetings and salutations. It is very usual for the Pashtoons to embrace each other when they meet. This is followed by a chain of inquiries like jor ye (Are you all right), Khushal Ye (are you happy) besides, some other similar expressions of good will."